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Address of Grover Cleveland and Booker T. Washington

out a dollar's worth of property, this spirit of self-help and indus-
trial thrift, coupled with aid from the State and generosity from
the North, has resulted in our building, at Tuskegee, an institution
of 800 students, gathered from  19 States; 70 instructors, 1,400
acres of land and 38 buildings, 23 industries, in all, property val-
ued at $225.000, all carried on at a cost of $75,000 a year.
    This is kept uppermost: To train men and women in head,
heart, and hand; to meet conditions that exist right about them
rather than conditions that existed centuries ago, or that exist
in communities a thousand miles away.  And so, when in connec-
tion with our literary and religious training, we have students cul-
tivate, by the improved methods in farming, 650 acres of land, then
we teach them dairying, horticulture, cookery, sewing, millinery,
and have them make the brick, do the brick masonry, plastering,
sawing of the lumber and carpentry, and have them help draw
the plans in connection with thirty buildings.  We are not saying
that education in the classics, of ministers, lawyers and doctors,
is not necessary and important, but we are saying, with every
atom of our being, that since 90 per cent. of the black race depend
at present upon the common occupations, and that since 85 per
cent of our people live by agriculture and are in the country dis-
tricts of the South, it is of the utmost importance that we sup-
ply them as fast as possible with educated leaders with the high-
est training in agriculture, dairying, horticulture and the mechani-
cal arts.  With us as a race this is a question of growth or decay,
life or death.  Within the next two decades it will be decided
whether the Negro, by discarding ante-bellum ideas and methods
of labor, by putting brains and skill into the common occupations
that lie at his door, will be able to lift up labor out of toil, drud-
gery and degradation, into that which is dignified, beautiful, and
glorified. Further, it will be decided within this time whether he
is to be replaced, crushed out as a helpful industrial factor by the
fast spreading trades unions and thousands of foreign skilled la-
borers that even now tread fast and hard upon his heels and begin
to press him unto death.  This question is for your Christian
Church to help decide. And in deciding, remember that you are
deciding not alone for the Negro, but whether you will have 8,-


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Address of Grover Cleveland and Booker T. Washington


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