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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor
			
                  THE NEGROES OF XENIA, OHIO.                      1007

which nearly all the drainage of the county is directed.   The largest
of these valleys, that of Beaver Creek, is suppoed to have  been exca-
vated by a large river which once flowed through it; but it now con-
tains only a small sluggish stream.    The Little Miami Valley, which
contains the river of similar name, drains about half of the county.
It consists of two well-marked portions, the lower and upper valleys,
the lower containing some of the most vauluable agricultural land in
the county.  Caesar's Creek drains the southeastern part of the county
and Mad River the northwestern corner.   Aside from these principal
depressions the general surface of the county is a plain, having an
average elevation of about 1,000 feet above the sea.  The lowest point
in the county, near its southern boundary, is about 700 feet above sea
level; while the highest point, in the north, is about 1,100 feet.  The
soils of the county, are chiefly the alluvial and gravel terraces of the
Little, Miami, Mad River, and Beaver Creek valleys.   Here  are some
of the most attractive and valuable farming lands.   They were used
as corn grounds by the Indians, and in later days it is said that some
parts of this region have borne for 50 consecutive years corn or
wheat without the application of any fertilizers whatever.   The yel-
low and white clays of the upland  part of the county, and the black
soils, or blue-grass lands, of the eastern section constitute  other vari-
eties of soils in the county.   The water supply of Greene County is
good.    It abounds in springs, as is suggested by the names of Yellow
Springs, Tawawa Springs, and Spring Valley.
  The townships of the county are twelve, namely: Xenia, Cedarville,
Beaver Creek, Sugar Creek, Miami,  Bath, Ross, Silver Creek, Jeffer-
son, Spring Valley, New Jasper, and Caesar's Creek.   Greene County
contains about 416  square miles.    There are 256,172  acres of farm
lands of which 214,388 acres are improved.    The  total number  of
farms in 1900 was 2,637 as against 2,387 in 1890.   According to the
United States census the farm land was divided as follows in 1890 and
in 1900:

   NUMBER AND PER CENT OF FARMS IN GREENE  COUNTY, BY SIZE, 1890 AND 1900.


                 Size of farms.                  1890.             1900.
                                            Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
                                       
Under 10 acres..........................      166     6.96      238     9.03
10 or under 20 acres....................      141     5.90      142     5.39
20 or under 50 acres....................      313    13.11      365    13.84
50 or under 100 acres...................      650    27.23      737    27.95
100 or under 500 acres..................    1,109    46.46    1,147    43.49
500 or under 1,000 acres................        7      .30        8      .30
1,000 acres or over.....................        1      .04    ..............

    Total...............................    2,387   100.00    2,637   100.00
   

  The average size of farms in Greene County in 1890 was 103 acres;
in 1900, 97.1 acres.




			
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OHS Archives/Library Pamphlet Collection

"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor

R.

Issue Number:  48


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