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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor
			
1020          BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
really a case of cohabitation and not legal marriage, though it has
lasted for over 20 years and children have been born to the couple.
From all except one of these marriages offspring has resulted.  As
far as the proportion of mixed blood is concerned, the following facts
as to complexion were gathered: Of 1,826 persons, who were either
observed by the investigator or reported upon reliable authority by
those in the same house, as to whether they were black, or brown, or
light, 470, or 25.7 per cent, reported black; 915, or 50.1 per cent, were
brown, and 441, including 9 whites, or 24.2 per cent, were light.  The
percentage of pure blacks is very small, indeed.  From this report it
might be safely estimated that 45 per cent of the Negroes of Xenia are
half white and half black.  In 1860 the census gave Greene County
932 blacks and 543 mulattoes, or 63.2 per cent and 36.8 per cent,
respectively.
                 SCHOOLS AND ILLITERACY.(a)
  There are two schools in Xenia for Negroes, one elementary school
and a high school.  The former is located in a brick building of 9
rooms, built at a cost of $20,000, and the latter in a building of brick,
with 4 rooms and a laboratory, valued at $5,000.  There are 8 teachers
in the elementary school and 4 in the high school; all are Negroes
except one, the teacher of German in the high school, who is a German
woman.  Legally and theoretically there are no separate schools for
the races in Xenia, but practically there are, because nearly all of the
Negroes live in the same part of the city and must therefore attend the
school in that district.  There are, however, a few Negro pupils, 15 in
number, in the schools generally attended by the whites, 4 of these
being in the high school.  The length of the school session is 9 months
and 2 weeks. The salaries of the Negro teachers are the same as those
of the white teachers.  One first-grade teacher gets $40 per month and
another first-grade teacher, a woman of 20 years' experience, gets $50.
In the other grades the monthly salaries are as follows: Second, third,
and fourth grades, $40; fifth and sixth, $45; seventh, $55; eighth, $65.
The principal of the high school receives $1,200 per year and his assist-
ants $750.  The salary of the principal was raised this year from $1,100
per year.
  There is a law for compulsory school attendance of all children
between the ages of 8 and 14, in good health.  This will account for
 a An interesting result of the movement to disfranchise the Negroes in North
Carolina is an increase of illiteracy in Xenia.  How general this is in other Northern
cities remains to be found out. Of 24 families coming to Xenia expressly on account
of losing their vote the heads of only 3 could read and write and only 5 could read.
In one there were 4 children between 6 and 16, only 1 of whom could read and
write. The philosophy of the situation was expressed by one man thus, "They
disfranchised us folks who couldn't read and write and we left to come where we
could vote."




			
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OHS Archives/Library Pamphlet Collection

"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor

R.

Issue Number:  48


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