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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor
the high school is a college graduate from Wilberforce University.   He
is highly respected by all citizens, both black and white, and his judg-
ment has great weight in the community.  There are 10 Negro clergy-
men in the city. Two of them are fairly well educated and all of them
are intelligent and active men, and, as far as the investigator could
find out, are men of good moral character.  They seem to be good
leaders of their people.
  THE ENTREPRENEURS.--There were reported 75 businesses in all
conducted by Negroes.  They are, conducted by 85 persons--75 men
and 10 women.  There are 8 barbers, 8 grocers, 3 restaurant keepers,
1 upholsterer, 2 ice-cream dealers, 7 blacksmiths, 2 contractors, 4 junk
dealers, 3 shoemakers, 2 peddlers, 13 farmers, 1 hackman, 2 under-
takers, 5 whitewashers, 1 stove repairer, 1 cigar maker, 12 teamsters,
1 billiard-hall keeper (who is also one of the ice-cream makers and
dealers among the men; and 3 grocers and confectioners, 1 milliner,
1 ice-cream dealer, 1 gardener, 1 dyer of clothes, 2 hairdressers, and 1
boarding-house keeper among the women.  One of the grocery stores
does a business of $125 per week on an average.  It has been established
18 years and gives employment to 4 and sometimes 6 persons.  Three
other groceries, established, respectively, 5 years, 7 years, and 2 years,
do a respectable business, amounting to $2,000 for each of the first two
and $1,200 for the third per year.  Each of these emlploys 1 clerk.
They are all situated in the section of the city where Negroes live, and
their trade is almost wholly from their own race.
  There are 8 Negroes in the barber's business, and they do all of the
work for their own race and a large part for the whites of the citv.
The Negroes, however, have not a monopoly of this work, for there
are 7 barber shops conducted by whites.  The two largest Negro bar-
ber shops have been established 40 and 18 years, respectivrely, and
employ from 8 to 10 men, and do a business of $3,000 and $2,000 per
year, respectively.  These are situated in the business portions of the
town.  No one of the 7 blacksmiths can be said to do a very thriving
business.  One old man, 84 years of age, has been established in Xenia
35 years, and in former years did a very creditable business as a
blacksmith and carriage builder.  He is now too feeble to attend to
business, and his shop has lost most of its former trade.      The 3
shoemakers do repair work, and thus eke out a scanty living.  Soevera
whitewashers and calciminers do contracting on a small scale.  One
ice-cream maker does a business of over $100 per month in summer.
He is a son of freeborn parents and has his wife associated with him
in his business.  The other ice-cream maker also does a good business.
Xenia is a "dry" town, so there is no saloon in the city, though in
this business, also, Negroes were engaged up to a year ago. The res-
taurants are all small places and barely make a support for their
operators. One of the fish peddlers reports an income of $10 per


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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor


Issue Number:  48


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