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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor
rural letter carrier for the country in the immediate vicinity, and 2 as
transfer men, one carrying the mails between Xenia post-office and the
trains and the other between the trains and Wilberforce post-office.
There is also a little clerical work done in connection with politics by
Negroes who are members of, or employed by, the different political
party committees of county, township, and ward.  The secretary of
the Xenia sanitary board is a Negro.  Two young men act as asses-
sors for the fourth and sixth wards, and there have been 2 Negro mem-
bers of the Xenia council.  One young man, who is a grocer'S clerk,
acts as reporter for one of the daily papers of Xenia, writing such
"colored society news" as comes under his notice.
  COMMON LABORERS.--This term will chlracterize a considerable
portion of the workmen of Xenia.  Some are employed on the rail-
road and the electric line in grading and in laying and  repairing
tracks, and some find employment in the various nurseries and rope
walks about the city.  Others have found work in the construction of
the sewer and as hod carriers on various buildings erected in and about
the city. This class works by the day and receives from $1 to $1.50
I)er day.  Besides these are teamsters, messengers, porters, and others
who work by the week or month, receiving from $3 to $7 a week.
The common unskilled work in Xenia is almost wholly done by the
Negroes and the Irish.
  DOMESTIC SERVICE.-There are 32 women and 5 men employed reg-
ularly as domestic servants.  They rceive from $1 to $6 per week,
with board.  Some of these return to their homes every night, though
a majority of them, especially the unmarried, sleep at home not more
than one night in each week. There are others, doubtless, who have
no other homes than those furnished by their employers. These are
not included in this description, because they are not residents of the
distinctively Negro group. Added to these 37 persons in domestic
service are 10 nurses, trained and untrained, who work more or less
regularly at from $3 to $10 per week.  In the main, however, the
domestic service is done not by Negroes, as in Farmville and Sandy
Spring, but by Irish women. A large number of Irish inhabit the
west end of the city, and offer great competition to the Negroes in
domestic service and common labor.
  INDUSTRIES. -The industries employing most Negroes are the cordage
factories, the distillery, and the steam laundries.  In all of these the
Negroes do the rough and unskilled labor.  Eighty-eight reported
working in the cordage factories or "rope walks," as they are called,
the rate of wages being generally $1.10 per day, though some are paid
as much as $2 per day.  For "preparing" $1.10 and $1.25 are paid;
for "hackling," a species of skilled labor with machinery, the pay is
from $1.50 to $2 per day. Only a few Negroes are hacklers. These
cordage factories employ from 60 to 80 Negroes.  In the Xenia Steam


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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor


Issue Number:  48


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