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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor
                 THE NEGROES OF XENIA, OHIO.                   1029
Laundry there are employed from 8 to 10 women and 2 men.  The
women iron by hand and receive $4.50 per week, while tile men run
washing machines for $6.50 per week.  The shoe factory, one of the
largest industries of the city, employs no Negroes.  In the Ohio Sol-
diers and Sailors' Orphans' Home and Industrial School there are
Negroes employed in many capacities, namely, the first assistant engi-
neer, who receives $40 per month and has held this position 12 years;
1 janitor, 2 porters, 2 brick masons, 1 cook, 3 women to look after
vegetable rooms, 8 women in laundry, 3 women in dining room and
kitchlien, 2 men to attend the lawns, and, as occasion may demand, from
12 to 20 on the farm.
  DAY SERVICE.--There are 288 Negroes in Xcnia employed in service
by the day.  Of these, 80 do what is called " general house work;"
that is, they do anything about the house-wash windows, scrub floors,
sweep and beat carpets, dust and clean furniture, etc.  They are
especially in demand in the spring and fall, when they receive their
best wages, 75 cents to $1.25 per day.  At other times they receive
50 cents to 75 cents per day, and act as general assistants to the " lady
of the house" or regular hired girl.  Beside these, there are 87 who
take in washing and ironing.    They generally bring the washings
home, but in some cases wash away from home. These 87 persons
reported earning by this means from 75 cents to $5 per week. They
charge 25 cents a week or $1 per month for washing the clothes of a
single person, and from 50 cents to $1.50 per week for family wash-
ings. This class, which is composed of women, on the whole works
more regularly than the men who are common laborers, and often it
happens that the only inconme which a family may have for several
weeks is that which results from the labor of the wife or some  other
female member of the family.  A  careful estimate of the wages
received in Xenia per year would give about one-fifth to the women.
  THE UNEMPLOYED.--As already indicated, there are times when
the supply of work is far short of the demand. It, therefore, happens
that there are but few Negroes in Xenia who are employed the whole
year round.  In the dull seasons many go to the larger cities of Day-
ton and Springfield, where they are able to secure work. This is true
  for women as well as men.  Whenever one of the cordage factories
  shuts down a large number of men are thrown out of employment,
 and, in the case of 'those who are not able to quickly readjust them-
.selves, this works hardship.  Yet Xenia has not a large number of
professional tramps and vagabonds.
  Of the 634 reported as not engaged in gainful occupations, only 11
were males having no income, 1 was crippled, 1 insane, 2 had had
consumption for the whole year (1 of these has died since the canvass),
1 was old and feeble, the others claimed they could not find work; 48
men and 16 women lived almost entirely upon what was raised in their


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"The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio: A Social Study (1830-1900)." Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor


Issue Number:  48


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