TWO LAYMEN HAVE BEEN POPES.
The canon law does not prescribe that the pope must be a cardinal
or even a cleric. Neverthleless, since the election of Urban VI. in 1378
the successful candidates have belonged to members of the sacred col-
lege, although as late as 1758 a non-cardinal was noted for several
times. At least two laymen--John XIX. (1024) and Adrian V. (1276)--
have occupied the papal throne, and there is to-day nothing to pre-
vent laymen from being created cardinals, although they are not entitled
to vote in the conclave unless they can produce a special permit from
the late pope.
THREE THOUGHTS OF LIFE.
He sold shoe laces, standing by the wall and holding them out to
the passers-by. Half-witted, growing old, very poor, what could life
have for him?
This was the thought of the work-woman fumbling in her pocket
for a coin. She had not one. What was to be done? To give him a
blessing for his soul and nothing to help his body seemed like a mockery.
She was sad for him. It is hard to be too poor to give. Stop!
God has everything. "Lord God," she said in her heart, "I have noth-
ing. Make others give to him. And, as he stands this day, half-blind
and lonely by the wall, let something from thee, even if it is but the
sunshine, warm and cheer him!"
Then she looked back down the road, and, lo! a cloud had passed;
and the beggar stood in the bright sunshine. A. T.
During the past summer and winter the officials of the Baden rail-
roads inaugurated the practice of serving hot coffee to their employees
at the expense of the management of the railroads or at the expense of
the government. The experiment has been attended with gratifying
The consumption of alcoholic drinks has materially decreased as
a result of the practice, and the efficiency of the workmen has increased.