696 CHURCH REVIEW.
sufficient protection to the freedmen and to the union
or loyal element in the South. Accordingly, under the
leadership of Henry Winter Davis. of Maryland, a bill
was passed through Congress, based upon the theory of
its prerogative in the premises, and more guarded and
exacting in its provisions.
Mr. Lincoln declined to approve this bill, chiefly be-
cause it contained a clause abolishing slavery in those
states and sections not affected by his own great war
measure of emancipation, his opinion being that this
could be done only by a constitutional amendment. Yet
out of deference to the opinion of Congress, he issued a
proclamation stating the provisions of the bill, and ex-
pressing a willingness to co-operate with any State vol-
untarily accepting its terms, but no State accepted the
offer. Some of the provisions of this bill were subse-
quently embodied in the 13th and 14th amendments.
But this sharp divergence of opinion between President
Lincoln and Congress on the subject of reconstruction
had the effect of suspending the work already begun in
Louisiana and Arkansas, and his own tragical death not
long afterwards devolved the difficult task upon other
PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S POLICY OF RECONSTRUCTION.
Andrew Johnson in succeeding to the Presidency, ac-
cepted the theory of Mr. Lincoln's policy of reconstruc-
tion, but seems to have grafted upon it some features of
the Congressional plan, especially the clause requiring
the appointment of provisional governors, and within
three months this scheme was in full operation in every
State in the South. But while President Johnson's
plan was in substantial agreement with his illustrious
predecessors, the spirit with which it was executed made
all the difference in the world. This difference mani-
tested itsef in their respective attitudes toward the
freed men, and the origin of it was in the difference in
the characters of the two men.
Mr. Lincoln's love of liberty had its source in his