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same year a brig that had seen better days, manned by
Dutch seamen, landed twenty slaves at Jamestown, Vir-
ginia. This was the beginning of the nefarious traffic in
human beings. The prisons of Europe were emptied of
the worst elements of society, to be employed in the slave
trade, while every unseaworthy vessel was immediately
brought into requisition. The vilest, most ignorant ele-
ments of France, Spain, and Portugal engaged in the trade.
And before 1650 the seas were covered with the greatest
curse that ever afflicted the earth. The southern colonies
were populated rapidly, and slavery spread through all the
settlements, both North and South.
It was found that in 1791, when the first census was
taken, that there were 40,370 slaves in the northern colo-
nies and 653,910 in the southern.
In Massachusetts, and in almost every New England
State, slaves were held, bought, sold, and advertised as
In 1710 the Rev. Samuel Phillips drew up a marriage
formulary designed especially for slaves in Massachusetts,
headed "Negro Marriage." It concludes as follows: "For
you must both of you bear in mind that you remain still,
as really and truly as ever, your master's property, and
therefore it will be justly expected, both by God and man,
that you behave and conduct yourselves as obedient and
faithful servants," etc.
At this time New York had about 1,500 negro and
Indian slaves. They were neglected in almost every par-
ticular. Their marriages were by common consent, with-
out the officiating presence of the ministers, or the consent
of the church. When sick, they were not visited, and
when they died, were denied the blessing of a Christian
burial, and thrown into a common ditch. They were left